Saturday, October 28, 2006

MATERI KULIAH ALGAE

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1. Introduction

A. Although algae have been traditionally regarded as simple plants, they actually span more than one domain, including both Eukaryota and Bacteria (see Blue-green algae), as well as more that one kingdom, including plants and protists, the latter being traditionally considered more animal-like (see protozoa). Thus algae do not represent a single evolutionary direction or line, but a level of organization that may have developed several times in the early history of life on earth.

Algae range from single-cell organisms to multicellular organisms, some with fairly complex differentiated form and (if marine) called seaweeds. All lack leaves, roots, flowers, and other organ structures that characterize higher plants. They are distinguished from other protozoa in that they are photoautotrophic although this is not a hard and fast distinction as some groups contain members that are mixotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of organic carbon either by osmotrophy, myzotrophy, or phagotrophy. Some unicellular species rely entirely on external energy sources and have reduced or lost their photosynthetic apparatus.

All algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately derived from the cyanobacteria, and so produce oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis, unlike non-cyanobacterial photosynthetic bacteria. It is estimated that algae produce about 73 to 87 percent of the net global production of oxygen[1]--which is available to humans and other terrestrial animals for respiration.

Algae are usually found in damp places or bodies of water and thus are common in terrestrial as well as aquatic environments. However, terrestrial algae are usually rather inconspicuous and far more common in moist, tropical regions than dry ones, because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land. Algae can endure dryness and other conditions in symbiosis with a fungus as lichen.

The various sorts of algae play significant roles in aquatic ecology. Microscopic forms that live suspended in the water column — called phytoplankton — provide the food base for most marine food chains. In very high densities (so-called algal blooms) these algae may discolor the water and outcompete or poison other life forms. Seaweeds grow mostly in shallow marine waters. Some are used as human food or harvested for useful substances such as agar or fertilizer. The study of marine algae is called phycology or algology.

B. Algae, diverse group of simple, plantlike organisms. Like plants, most algae use the energy of sunlight to make their own food, a process called photosynthesis. However, algae lack the roots, leaves, and other structures typical of true plants. Algae are the most important photosynthesizing organisms on Earth. They capture more of the sun’s energy and produce more oxygen (a byproduct of photosynthesis) than all plants combined. Algae form the foundation of most aquatic food webs, which support an abundance of animals.

Algae vary greatly in size and grow in many diverse habitats. Microscopic algae, called phytoplankton, float or swim in lakes and oceans. Phytoplankton are so small that 1000 individuals could fit on the head of a pin (see Plankton). The largest forms of algae are seaweeds that stretch 100 m (300 ft) from the ocean bottom to the water’s surface. Although most algae grow in fresh water or seawater, they also grow on soil, trees, and animals, and even under or inside porous rocks, such as sandstone and limestone. Algae tolerate a wide range of temperatures and can be found growing in hot springs, on snow banks, or deep within polar ice.

Algae also form mutually beneficial partnerships with other organisms (see Symbiosis). For example, algae live with fungi to form lichens—plantlike or branching growths that form on boulders, cliffs, and tree trunks. Algae called zooxanthellae live inside the cells of reef-building coral. In both cases, the algae provide oxygen and complex nutrients to their partner, and in return they receive protection and simple nutrients. This arrangement enables both partners to survive in conditions that they could not endure alone.

The earliest life-forms on this planet are thought to be early ancestors of cyanobacteria, a type of algae formerly called blue-green algae. Fossilized cyanobacteria have been found in rocks more than 3 billion years old. These early algae formed when there was no oxygen in the atmosphere, and scientists theorize that as the algae photosynthesized, they released oxygen as a byproduct, which eventually accumulated in the atmosphere. Algae were probably the first organisms capable of photosynthesis and, until the appearance of plants on earth, the only photosynthesizers for billions of years.

2. Physical Characteristics

With the exception of the cyanobacteria, algae are eukaryotes—that is, the insides of their cells are organized into separate membrane-wrapped organelles, including a nucleus and mitochondria. An important organelle found in eukaryotic algae is the chloroplast, which contains the light-absorbing pigments responsible for capturing the energy in sunlight during photosynthesis. In most algae the primary pigment is chlorophyll, the same green pigment used in plants. Many algae also contain secondary pigments, including the carotenoids, which are brown or yellow, and the phycobilins, which are red or blue. Secondary pigments give algae their colorful hues.

The cyanobacteria are prokaryotes—that is, relatively simple unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. As their modern name implies, the cyanobacteria have many characteristics that resemble bacteria.

Like plants, most algae have rigid cell walls composed largely of cellulose. An exception is the diatom, whose cell wall is composed primarily of silica, which provides rigidity and also produces elaborately sculpted patterns of grooves that serve as identifying features. Many eukaryotic algae have whiplike appendages called flagella attached to their cell walls. By beating flagella in a rotary movement, these algae are able to move through water with considerable speed. A few algae that are devoid of rigid cell walls are able to protrude one part of the body ahead of the other to crawl on solid surfaces in an amoeba-like fashion.

Algae come in a variety of shapes and forms. The simplest form is the single, self-sufficient cell, such as Euglena, dependent only on sunlight and carbon dioxide and minerals from the water. Numerous one-celled algae may clump together to form a colony. Although these cells are attached to one another, each cell within a colony continues to function independently. Still other algae are multicellular organisms. In the simplest multicellular algae, the cells are joined end to end, forming filaments, both branched and unbranched. More complex structures may be shaped like a small disc, tube, club, or even a tree. The most complex algae have highly specialized cells. Some seaweeds, for instance, have a variety of specialized tissues, including a rootlike holdfast, a stipe, which resembles a plant stalk, and a leaflike blade.

While most algae create their own food through photosynthesis, some are unable to photosynthesize. These algae ingest food from external sources by absorbing simple nutrients through the cell membrane. To absorb more complex nutrients, algae that lack rigid walls are able to engulf food particles and digest them. Some of the algae known as dinoflagellates extend a feeding tube, called a peduncle, to suck in food. Other dinoflagellates use special harpoonlike structures to snare their food. Some algae are parasites, living in or on another organism from which they get their food. Some parasitic red algae live off other red algae, and parasitic dinoflagellates live in the intestines of some marine animals, such as copepods and annelids.

3. Reproduction

Algae reproduce in astoundingly diverse ways. Some reproduce asexually, others use sexual reproduction, and many use both. In asexual reproduction an individual reproduces without combining its genetic material with that from another individual. The simplest form of asexual reproduction is binary fission, in which a unicellular organism simply divides into two new individuals. Some multicellular algae, including Sargassum, reproduce asexually through fragmentation, in which fragments of the parent develop into new individuals. In a similar process called budding, special buds detach from multicellular algae and develop into new individuals, commonly found in Sphacelaria. Many algae produce special cells called spores that are capable of growing into new individuals. If these spores move about using flagella, they are known as zoospores.

In sexual reproduction, genetic material from two individuals is combined. The simplest form of sexual reproduction in algae is conjugation, in which two similar organisms fuse, exchange genetic material, and then break apart. For example, in Spirogyra, which produces both asexually and sexually, two long, unbranched filaments join via conjugation tubes, through which genetic material is exchanged between cells. Most multicellular algae undergo a more complex form of sexual reproduction involving the union of special reproductive cells, called gametes, to form a single cell, known as a zygote.

Many algae incorporate both sexual and asexual modes of reproduction. This is well demonstrated in the life cycle of the alga Chlamydomonas. The mature alga is a single haploid cell—that is, it contains only one set of chromosomes. During asexual reproduction the cell undergoes mitosis, a type of cell division that produces genetically identical offspring. Four daughter cells are created that emerge from the enclosing parent cell as spores. The spores develop into mature haploid cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell.

Certain environmental conditions, such as lack of nutrients or moisture, may trigger the haploid daughter cells to undergo sexual reproduction. Instead of forming into spores, the haploid daughter cells form gametes that have two different mating strains. These two strains are structurally similar and are called plus and minus strains. Opposite mating strains fuse in a process known as isogamy to form a diploid zygote, which contains two sets of chromosomes. After a period of dormancy, the zygote undergoes meiosis, a type of cell division that reduces the genetic content of a cell by half. This cell division produces four genetically unique haploid cells that eventually grow into mature cells.

Some multicellular green algae, such as Ulva, follow a distinct pattern of reproduction called alternation of generations, in which it takes two generations—one that reproduces sexually and one that reproduces asexually—to complete the life cycle. The two mature forms of the algae, alternating between diploid and haploid individuals, are identical in appearance, or isomorphic. The haploid form, called a gametophyte, undergoes mitosis to produce haploid gametes. These gametes unite to form a diploid zygote, which develops into the diploid form called a sporophyte. The sporophyte undergoes meiosis to form haploid spores that, in turn, form gametophytes.

Not all algae that undergo alternation of generations have haploid and diploid forms that look alike. In the life cycle of the seaweed Laminaria, the gametophyte and the sporophyte are distinct in appearance, or heteromorphic. The Laminaria sporophyte appears as long, bladelike structures that grow on rocks just below the water in intertidal zones. The gametophyte is short, with branched filaments.

4. Klasifikasi

Tabel 1. Klasifikasi fitoplankton laut (Parson et al, 1984)

Taksonomi (kelas)

Nama umum

Area yang dominan

Cyanophyceae

Alga biru hijau

Tropik, cosmopolitan

Rhodophyceae

Alga merah

Jarang, Pantai

Bacillariophyceae

Diatom

Seluruh perairan laut, khususnya pantai

Cryptophyceae

Cryptomonad

Cosmopolitan, khususnya pantai

Dinophyceae

Dinoflagellata

Seluruh perairan laut, khususnya daerah tropis

Chrysophyceae

Crysomonad

Silicoflgellata

Jarang, pantai

Kadang-kadang melimpah

Haptophyceae

Coccolithopor

Prymnesiomonad

Lautan (coccolit)

Pantai (prymnesio)

Raphidiophyceae

Chloromonad

Jarang, tetapi kadang-kadang melimpah, payau

Xanthophyceae

Alga kuning hijau

Jarang

Eustigmatophyceae

-

Jarang

Euglenophyceae

Euglenoid

Pantai

Prasinophyceae

Prasionomonad

Seluruh perairan laut

Chlorophyceae

Alga hijau

Volvocales

Jarang , pantai


4. Uses of algae

Seaweed is used as a fertiliserAlgae are used by man in a great many ways. Because many species are aquatic and microscopic, they are cultured in clear tanks or ponds and either harvested or used to treat effluents pumped through the ponds. Algaculture on a large scale is an important type of aquaculture in some places. Certain species are edible; the best known is Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) O. Kuntze (Rhodymenia palmata (Linnaeus) Kuntze), common name: dulse. This is a red species which is dried and may be bought in the shops in Ireland. It is eaten raw, fresh or dried, or cooked like spinach. Porphyra, common name: purple laver, is also collected and used in a variety of ways (e.g. "laver bread" in the British Isles). In Ireland it is collected and made into a jelly by stewing or boiling. Preparation also involves frying with fat or converting to a pinkish jelly by heating the fronds in a saucepan with a little water and beating with a fork. It is also collected and used in by people of Asian background along most of the coast from California to British Columbia. The Hawaiians and the Maoris of New Zealand also use it. Chondrus crispus, (probably confused with Mastocarpus stellatus), common name: Irish moss, is also used as "carrageen" for the stiffening of milk and dairy products, such as ice-cream. One particular use is in "instant" puddings, sauces and creams. Ulva lactuca, common name: sea lettuce, is used locally in Scotland where it is added to soups or used in salads. Alaria esculenta, common name: dabberlocks, is used either fresh or cooked, in Greenland, Iceland, Scotland and Ireland.

a. Fertiliser
For centuries seaweed has been used as manure: "This kind of ore they often gather and lay in heaps where it heteth and rotteth, and will have a strong and loathsome smell; when being so rotten they cast it on the land, as they do their muck, and thereof springeth good corn, especially barley."[6] There are also commercial uses of algae as agar.

Maerl is still harvested at Falmouth (also extensively in Brittany and western Ireland) and is a popular fertiliser in these days of organic gardening; Blunden et al. (1981)[7] investigated Falmouth maerl and found that L. corallioides predominated down to 6 m and P. calcareum from 6-10 m. Chemical analysis of maerl showed that it contained 32.1% CaCO3 and 3.1% MgCO3 (dry weight).

b. Energy source
Algae can be used to make biodiesel (see algaculture), and by some estimates can produce vastly superior amounts of oil, compared to terrestrial crops grown for the same purpose. Because algae grown to produce biodiesel does not need to meet the requirements of a food crop, it is much cheaper to produce. Also it does not need fresh water or fertilizer (both of which are quite expensive).
Algae can be grown to produce hydrogen. In 1939 a German researcher named Hans Gaffron, while working at the University of Chicago, observed that the algae he was studying, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (a green-algae), would sometimes switch from the production of oxygen to the production of hydrogen.[1] Gaffron never discovered the cause for this change and for many years other scientists failed in their attempts at its discovery. In the late 1990s professor Anastasios Melis a researcher at the University of California at Berkeley discovered that if the algae culture medium is deprived of sulfur it will switch from the production of oxygen (normal photosynthesis), to the production of hydrogen. He found that the enzyme responsible for this reaction is hydrogenase, but that the hydrogenase lost this function in the presence of oxygen. Melis found that depleting the amount of sulfur available to the algae interrupted its internal oxygen flow, allowing the hydrogenase an environment in which it can react, causing the algae to produce hydrogen. [2] Chlamydomonas moeweesi is also a good strain for the production of hydrogen.
Algae can be grown to produce biomass, which can be burned to produce heat and electricity. [3]

c. Pollution control
Algae are used in wastewater treatment facilities, reducing the need for more dangerous chemicals.
Algae can be used to capture fertilizers in runoff from farms. If this algae is then harvested, it itself can be used as fertilizer.
Algae bioreactors are used by some powerplants to reduce CO2 emissions. [4] The CO2 can be pumped into a pond, or some kind of tank, on which the algae feed. Alternatively, the bioreactor can be installed directly on top of a smokestack. This techology has been pioneered by Massachusetts-based GreenFuelTechnologies.[5].

d. Nutritional value of algae
Algae is commercially cultivated as a nutritional supplement. One of the most popular microalgal species is Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), which is a Cyanobacteria (known as blue-green algae), and has been hailed by some as a superfood. [6] Other algal species cultivated for their nutritional value include; Chlorella (a green algae), and Dunaliella (Dunaliella salina), which is high in beta-carotene and is used in vitamin C supplements.
Algae is sometimes also used as a food, as in the Chinese "vegetable" known as fat choy (which is actually a cyanobacterium).
The oil from some algae have high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Arachidonic acid(a polyunsaturated fatty acid), is very high in Parietochloris incisa, (a green algae) where it reaches up to 47% of the triglyceride pool (Bigogno C et al. Phytochemistry 2002, 60, 497). [7] [8]
The natural pigments produced by algae can be used as an alternative to chemical dyes and coloring agents. [9] Many of the paper products used today are not recyclable because of the chemical inks that they use, paper recyclers have found that inks made from algae are much easier to break down. There is also much interest in the food industry into replacing the coloring agents that are currently used with coloring derived from algal pigments.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algae#Introduction

29 comments:

draco said...

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Hans 0508305022

Vivin 0508305001
Sekar 0508305006
Yossy 0508305018

Unadi said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Unadi said...

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Sekarang saya dah bisa koq.
Hehehe....
yossy 0508305018

Sekar said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Sekar said...

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dinyunita said...

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draco said...

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draco said...

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Mirah 0508305010
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puput said...

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maria said...

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atik said...

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mirah said...

hallo Bu Din maaf baru masuk soalnya baru daftar emailnya di ajarin ma hans!kemarin2 susah masuknya bu! foto alganya di perbanyak bu.. spy belajarnya enak klo ada gambarnya langsung!
Mirah Kalvika Sari 0508305010
oya bu disini juga ada Herma 0508305015, yogi 0508305026 ma eka ari 0508305023 ma tmn2 laen yang menuhin warnet!

dayu said...

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aisyah said...

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Gunawan said...

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saya baru bikin email. hehehehe....
Gunawan 0508305003

putri sri andila said...

putri sri andila
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Sekar said...

bu, kapan ni isi blog nya ditambah?? Udah bagus lho bu isinya... ajarin dong buat blog sendiri...

Sekar said...

Bu ujiannya sampai materi yang ada di blog ini ya?? Materi yang bahasa Inggris juga????

dinyunita said...

sori anak2,bikin kalian ribet ya,semata2 biar kalian gak gatek lo, mo bikin blog sendiri? oke, kapan mo blajar? sy senang ngajari kalian, sangat asyik unt bikin tulisan2. o ya putri kok no komen, bingung ya mo tulis apa, yg nitip2 tulis sendiri dong, ayo bikin e-mail sendiri, trus yg nitip dpt bintang **, yg sdh usaha dpt bintang *****, siapa mo dpt 5? ayo tulis sdr, he he he he ..........

dinyunita said...

Buat Hans thanks so much dah bantu temen2,gitu ya jgn pelit22 berbagi ilmu, Maria, artikel sj unt bahan tambahan ujian, Atik yg sabar ya,Mirah,wah kamu perlu foto alga ya,oke nanti tak perbanyak,gak perlu fotoku ya hehehe,eh sy gak liat tuh pada menuhi warnet hehehe,Dayu kalo capek cari tukang pijit ya, Gunawan slamat ya gak apa2 kok, Sekar bhn ujian artikel sj ya yg bhs inggris ntar sj,kapan mo bikin blog, asal harganya cocok beres deh hehehehe........
OKE ANAK2 SLAMAT BLAJAR YA SUKSES UNTUK SMUA, SALAM

nikendut said...

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gus eka said...

bu, jadi jalan - jalanya kepante laut algae?????????haheheheheh


agus eka 0508305016

gus eka said...

ibu nie saya jadi doyan ngrim ngirim
hehe....bu gimana hasil ujian kami?


gus eka 0508305016

yogi said...

bu din ini yogi (0508305026) lagi iseng2 buka lagi bagus lo.. hermayanti (0508305026)juga ikut nie bu...

gus eka said...

nanya bu gimana cara pengawetan algae untuk herbarium ?


gus eka 0508305016

HERMAYANTI said...

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dayu said...

halo bu ni dayu sama eka ari...kami mo nanya materi brophyta katanya sekar ada di blognya ibu, tapi kami dah buka tapi kok ga ada ni bu...gmn donk bu...????? Please bales donk bu biar kami nggak nunggu lama n ga bingung....thanks sblmnya...hehehe.....

Unadi said...

Ibu, k0q materi bryophytanya gak ad c?

Sekar said...

bu, akhirnya nemu bryophyta nya....
horeee...^_^
kok letaknya tersembunyi gitu die???